Anfang November eröffneten die Briten ihre Offensive gegen das Afrikakorps. Obwohl hoffnungslos unterlegen, befahl Hitler den Kampf. El-Alamein (arabisch العلمين, DMG al-ʿAlamain) ist eine ägyptische Kleinstadt an der Küste des Mittelmeers, knapp Kilometer westlich von Alexandria und. El-Alamein (arabisch: العلمين, al-ʿAlamain) ist eine Stadt an der Mittelmeerküste Ägyptens, km westlich von Alexandria gelegen. In Westen dieses Ortes.
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Die zweite Schlacht von El Alamein war eine entscheidende Schlacht des Zweiten Weltkrieges auf dem nordafrikanischen Kriegsschauplatz. Sie fand zwischen dem Oktober und dem 4. Die zweite Schlacht von El Alamein war eine entscheidende Schlacht des Zweiten Weltkrieges auf dem nordafrikanischen Kriegsschauplatz. Sie fand zwischen. El-Alamein (arabisch العلمين, DMG al-ʿAlamain) ist eine ägyptische Kleinstadt an der Küste des Mittelmeers, knapp Kilometer westlich von Alexandria und. Die Schlacht bei El Alamein Gefangene deutsche Soldaten, Durch Verlegung deutscher Luft- und Seestreitkräfte von Südeuropa nach Nordafrika. Anfang November eröffneten die Briten ihre Offensive gegen das Afrikakorps. Obwohl hoffnungslos unterlegen, befahl Hitler den Kampf. El-Alamein (arabisch: العلمين, al-ʿAlamain) ist eine Stadt an der Mittelmeerküste Ägyptens, km westlich von Alexandria gelegen. In Westen dieses Ortes. Die zweite Schlacht von El-Alamein. Nach mehreren Siegen hatten die Achsenmächte schließlich die wichtige Hafenstadt Tobruk in Besitz.
El-Alamein liegt auf halber Strecke zwischen Alexandria und Marsa Matruh an der NordkÃ¼ste Ã„gyptens. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde es durch den. Anfang November eröffneten die Briten ihre Offensive gegen das Afrikakorps. Obwohl hoffnungslos unterlegen, befahl Hitler den Kampf. Als britische Truppen im Zweiten Weltkrieg während einer Großoffensive bei El Alamein die deutschen Stellungen durchbrachen, befahl Erwin.
El Alamein Meniu de navigare VideoBattle Plan: Battle of El Alamein - BBC Documentary - Peter and Dan Snow
Rommel had also interspersed formations from the Trieste and 15th Panzer Divisions to "corset" his weaker forces in the front line.
On 1 November the two German armoured divisions had effective tanks to face Supercharge and the Littorio and Trieste Divisions had 65 tanks between them.
Supercharge started with a seven-hour aerial bombardment focused on Tel el Aqqaqir and Sidi Abd el Rahman , followed by a four and a half-hour barrage of guns firing 15, shells.
On the right of the main attack 28th Maori battalion captured positions to protect the right flank of the newly formed salient and rd Lorried Infantry did the same on the left.
New Zealand engineers cleared five lines through the mines allowing the Royal Dragoons armoured car regiment to slip out into the open and spend the day raiding the Axis communications.
The 9th Armoured Brigade had started its approach march at on 1 November from El Alamein railway station with around tanks and arrived at its start line with only 94 runners operational tanks.
The brigade was to have started its attack towards Tel el Aqqaqir at behind a barrage; the attack was postponed for 30 minutes while the brigade regrouped on Currie's orders.
We all realise that for armour to attack a wall of guns sounds like another Balaclava , it is properly an infantry job.
But there are no more infantry available. So our armour must do it. Brigadier Currie had tried to get the brigade out of doing this job, stating that he believed the brigade would be attacking on too wide a front with no reserves and that they would most likely have 50 percent losses.
The German and Italian anti-tank guns mostly Pak38 and Italian 47 mm guns, along with 24 of the formidable 88 mm flak guns opened fire upon the charging tanks silhouetted by the rising sun.
The Axis gun screen started to inflict a steady amount of damage upon the advancing tanks but was unable to stop them; over the course of the next 30 minutes, around 35 guns were destroyed and several hundred prisoners taken.
The 9th Armoured Brigade had started the attack with 94 tanks and was reduced to only 14 operational tanks  and of the tank crew involved in the attack, were killed, wounded or captured.
Bernard Montgomery, referring to the mistakes of the British armoured forces during the First Battle of El Alamein [ citation needed ].
On seeing Brigadier Currie asleep on a stretcher, he approached him saying, "Sorry to wake you John, but I'd like to know where your tanks are?
Gentry said "I don't mean your headquarters tanks, I mean your armoured regiments. Where are they? The brigade had sacrificed itself upon the gun line and caused great damage but had failed to create the gap for the 1st Armoured Division to pass through; however, soon after dawn 1st Armoured Division started to deploy and the remains of 9th Armoured Brigade came under its command.
At on 2 November, the remains of 15th Panzer, 21st Panzer and Littorio Armoured Divisions counter-attacked 1st Armoured Division and the remains of 9th Armoured Brigade, which by that time had dug in with a screen of anti-tank guns and artillery together with intensive air support.
The counter-attack failed under a blanket of shells and bombs, resulting in a loss of some tanks. Although X Corps had failed in its attempt to break out, it had succeeded in its objective of finding and destroying enemy tanks.
Although tank losses were approximately equal, this represented only a portion of the total British armour, but most of Rommel's tanks; the Afrika Korps strength of tanks fit for battle fell by 70 while in addition to the losses of the 9th Armoured Brigade, the 2nd and 8th Armoured Brigades lost 14 tanks in the fighting, with another 40 damaged or broken down.
The fighting was later termed the "Hammering of the Panzers". In the late afternoon and early evening, the rd Lorried and st Infantry Brigades—by this time back under command of 51st Infantry Division—attacked respectively the Snipe and Skinflint about a mile west of Snipe positions in order to form a base for future operations.
The heavy artillery concentration which accompanied their advance suppressed the opposition from the Trieste Division and the operation succeeded with few casualties.
On the night of 2 November, Montgomery once again reshuffled his infantry in order to bring four brigades 5th Indian, st, 5th New Zealand and th into reserve under XXX Corps to prepare for the next thrust.
Rommel concluded that to forestall a breakthrough and the resulting destruction of his whole army he must start withdrawing to the planned position at Fuka.
His mobile forces XX Corps, Afrika Korps , 90th Light Division and 19th Flak Division were ordered to make a fighting withdrawal while his other formations were to withdraw as best they could with the limited transport available.
The 2nd and 8th Armoured Brigades would then pass through the infantry to a distance of about 3. On the morning of 3 November 7 Armoured Division would pass through and swing north heading for the railway at Ghazal station.
This combined with stiff resistance led to the failure of their attack. As a consequence, the orders for the armour were changed and 2nd Armoured Brigade was tasked to support the forward battalion of rd Lorried Brigade 2nd King's Royal Rifle Corps and 8th Armoured Brigade was to push south-west.
Fighting continued throughout 3 November, but 2nd Armoured was held off by elements of the Afrika Korps and tanks of the Littorio Division.
Further south, 8th Armoured Brigade was held off by anti-tank units helped later by tanks of the arriving Ariete Division. The army's strength was so exhausted after its ten days of battle that it was not now capable of offering any effective opposition to the enemy's next break-through attempt With our great shortage of vehicles an orderly withdrawal of the non-motorised forces appeared impossible In these circumstances we had to reckon, at the least, with the gradual destruction of the army.
To Field Marshal Rommel. It is with trusting confidence in your leadership and the courage of the German-Italian troops under your command that the German people and I are following the heroic struggle in Egypt.
In the situation which you find yourself there can be no other thought but to stand fast, yield not a yard of ground and throw every gun and every man into the battle.
Considerable air force reinforcements are being sent to C. The Duce and the Commando Supremo are also making the utmost efforts to send you the means to continue the fight.
Your enemy, despite his superiority, must also be at the end of his strength. It would not be the first time in history that a strong will has triumphed over the bigger battalions.
As to your troops, you can show them no other road than that to victory or death. Adolf Hitler. Rommel thought the order similar to one that had been given at the same time by Benito Mussolini through Comando Supremo ,.
We were completely stunned, and for the first time in the African campaign I did not know what to do. A kind of apathy took hold of us as we issued orders for all existing positions to be held on instructions from the highest authority.
The Italian XX Corps and the Ariete Division conformed to their position and Rommel replied to Hitler confirming his determination to hold the battlefield.
The nd Infantry Brigade was mistakenly told the Axis had withdrawn from their objectives and unexpectedly met determined resistance. Communications failed and the forward infantry elements ended up digging in well short of their objective.
By the time the 5th Indian Brigade set off, the defenders had begun to withdraw and their objective was taken virtually unopposed.
By the time the th Brigade moved into some artillery-fire, the Axis had left. On 4 November, the Eighth Army plan for pursuit began at dawn; no fresh units were available and the 1st and 7th Armoured divisions were to turn northwards to roll up the Axis units still in the forward lines.
The New Zealanders got off to a slow start because its units were dispersed after the recent fighting and took time to concentrate.
Paths through the minefields were congested and had deteriorated, which caused more delays. The plan to trap the 90th Light Division with the 1st and 7th Armoured divisions misfired.
The 7th Armoured Division was held up by the Ariete Armoured Division, which was destroyed conducting a determined resistance.
Enormous dust-clouds could be seen south and south-east of headquarters [of the DAK], where the desperate struggle of the small and inefficient Italian tanks of XX Corps was being played out against the hundred or so British heavy tanks which had come round their open right flank.
I was later told by Major von Luck, whose battalion I had sent to close the gap between the Italians and the Afrika Korps, that the Italians, who at that time represented our strongest motorised force, fought with exemplary courage.
Tank after tank split asunder or burned out, while all the time a tremendous British barrage lay over the Italian infantry and artillery positions.
The last signal came from the Ariete at about Ariete now encircled. Ariete tanks still in action". Berlin radio claimed that in this sector the "British were made to pay for their penetration with enormous losses in men and material.
The Italians fought to the last man. The more we advanced the more we realised that the Italians did not have much fight in them after putting up a strong resistance to our overwhelming advance and they started surrendering to our lead troops in droves.
There was not much action to see but we came across lots of burnt out Italian tanks that had been destroyed by our tanks.
I had never seen a battlefield before and the site [ sic ] of so many dead was sickening. The Bologna and the remnants of the Trento Division tried to fight their way out and marched into the desert without water, food or transport before surrendering, exhausted and dying from dehydration.
Harry Zinder of Time magazine noted that the Italians fought better than had been expected and commented that for the Italians.
It was a terrific letdown by their German allies. They had fought a good fight. In the south, the famed Folgore parachute division fought to the last round of ammunition.
Two armoured divisions and a motorised division, which had been interspersed among the German formations, thought they would be allowed to retire gracefully with Rommel's 21st, 15th and 19th [sic] light.
But even that was denied them. When it became obvious to Rommel that there would be little chance to hold anything between El Daba and the frontier, his Panzers dissolved, disintegrated and turned tail, leaving the Italians to fight a rear-guard action.
The picture in the early afternoon of the 4th was as follows: powerful enemy armoured forces As a result of this, our forces in the north were threatened with encirclement by enemy formations 20 times their number in tanks There were no reserves, as every available man and gun had been put into the line.
So now it had come, the thing we had done everything in our power to avoid — our front broken and the fully motorised enemy streaming into our rear.
Superior orders could no longer count. We had to save what there was to be saved. Rommel telegraphed Hitler for permission to fall back on Fuka.
As further Allied blows fell, Thoma was captured and reports came in from the Ariete and Trento divisions that they were encircled.
At , unable to wait any longer for a reply from Hitler, Rommel gave orders to retreat. Due to lack of transport, most of the Italian infantry formations were abandoned.
The New Zealand Division group had hoped to reach their objective by mid-morning on 5 November but was held up by artillery-fire when picking their way through what turned out to be a dummy minefield and the 15th Panzer Division got there first.
The DAF continued to fly in support but because of the dispersion of X Corps, it was difficult to establish bomb lines, beyond which, aircraft were free to attack.
By on 6 November, the "B" Echelon support vehicles began to reach the 1st Armoured Division but with only enough fuel to replenish two of the armoured regiments, which set off again hoping to be in time to cut off the Axis.
A fuel convoy had set out from Alamein on the evening of 5 November but progress was slow as the tracks had become very cut up. In a running fight, the 21st Panzer Division lost 16 tanks and numerous guns, narrowly escaping encirclement and reached Mersa Matruh that evening.
On 7 November, waterlogged ground and lack of fuel stranded the 1st and 7th Armoured divisions.
The 10th Armoured Division, on the coast road and with ample fuel, advanced to Mersa Matruh while its infantry mopped up on the road west of Galal.
By nightfall on 11 November, the Egyptian wall was clear but Montgomery was forced to order that the pursuit should temporarily be continued only by armoured cars and artillery, because of the difficulty in supplying larger formations west of Bardia.
El Alamein was an Allied victory, although Rommel did not lose hope until the end of the Tunisia Campaign. Churchill said,. It may almost be said, "Before Alamein we never had a victory.
After Alamein we never had a defeat". The Allies frequently had numerical superiority in the Western Desert but never had it been so complete in quantity and quality.
With the arrival of Sherman tanks , 6-pounder anti-tank guns and Spitfires in the Western Desert, the Allies gained a comprehensive superiority.
Allied artillery was superbly handled and Allied air support was excellent, in contrast to the Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica , which offered little or no support to ground forces, preferring to engage in air-to-air combat.
Air supremacy had a huge effect on the battle. Montgomery wrote,. The moral effect of air action [on the enemy] is very great and out of all proportion to the material damage inflicted.
In the reverse direction, the sight and sound of our own air forces operating against the enemy have an equally satisfactory effect on our own troops.
A combination of the two has a profound influence on the most important single factor in war—morale. Historians debate the reasons Rommel decided to advance into Egypt.
In , Martin van Creveld wrote that Rommel had been advised by the German and Italian staffs that his army could not properly be supplied so far from the ports of Tripoli and Benghazi.
Rommel pressed ahead with his advance to Alamein and as predicted, supply difficulties limited the attacking potential of the axis forces. Rommel had been very pessimistic, especially after the First Battle of El Alamein, and knew that as US supplies were en route to Africa and Axis ships were being sunk in the Mediterranean, the Axis was losing a race against time.
On 27 August, Kesselring promised Rommel that supplies would arrive in time but Westphal pointed out that such an expectation would be unrealistic and the offensive should not begin until they had arrived.
After a conversation with Kesselring on 30 August, Rommel decided to attack, "the hardest [decision] in my life". In , Niall Barr wrote that the 36, Panzerarmee casualties, was an estimate because of the chaos of the Axis retreat.
British figures, based on Ultra intercepts, gave German casualties as 1, killed, 3, wounded and 8, men captured. Italian losses were dead, wounded and 15, men captured.
By 11 November, the number of Axis prisoners had risen to 30, men. According to the Italian official history, Axis losses during the battle were 4, to 5, killed or missing, 7, to 8, wounded and 17, prisoners; during the retreat the losses rose to 9, killed or missing, 15, wounded and 35, prisoners.
About half of the Italian tanks had been lost and most of the remainder were knocked out on the next day by the 7th Armoured Division.
About Axis guns were lost, along with 64 German and 20 Italian aircraft. The Eighth Army had 13, casualties, of whom 2, men had been killed, 8, wounded and 2, were missing; 58 percent of the casualties were British, 22 percent Australian, 10 percent New Zealanders, 6 percent South African, 1 percent Indian and 3 percent Allied forces.
The Eighth Army lost from to tanks, although by the end of the battle, had been repaired. The Eighth Army was surprised by the Axis withdrawal and confusion caused by redeployments between the three corps meant they were slow in pursuit, failing to cut off Rommel at Fuka and Mersa Matruh.
Supply shortages and a belief that the Luftwaffe were about to get strong reinforcements, led the DAF to be cautious, reduce the number of offensive sorties on 5 November and protect the Eighth Army.
Huge quantities of engineer stores had been collected to repair the coast road; the railway line from El Alamein to Fort Capuzzo, despite having been blown up in over places, was quickly repaired.
Montgomery paused for three weeks to concentrate his forces and prepare an assault on El Agheila to deny the Axis the possibility of a counter-attack.
On 11 December, Montgomery launched the 51st Highland Division along the line of the coast road with the 7th Armoured Division on the inland flank.
On 12 December the 2nd New Zealand Division started a deeper flanking manoeuvre to cut the Axis line of retreat on the coast road in the rear of the Mersa Brega position.
The Panzerarmee had lost roughly 75, men, 1, guns and tanks since the Second Battle of Alamein and withdrew.
Rommel conducted a text-book retreat, destroying all equipment and infrastructure left behind and peppering the land behind him with mines and booby traps.
Mussolini replied on 19 December that the Panzerarmee must resist to the last man at Buerat. On 15 January , the 51st Highland Division made a frontal attack while the 2nd New Zealand Division and the 7th Armoured Division drove around the inland flank of the Axis line.
Rommel was by this time in contact with the Fifth Panzer Army, which had been fighting against the multi-national First Army in northern Tunisia, since shortly after Operation Torch.
Hitler was determined to retain Tunisia and Rommel finally started to receive replacement men and materials. The Axis faced a war on two fronts , with the Eighth Army approaching from the east and the British, French and Americans from the west.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Western Desert Campaign. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Further information: Second Battle of El Alamein order of battle.
Main article: Operation Bertram. Main article: Operation Braganza. Main article: Outpost Snipe. Axis counter-attack and attack by 9th Australian Division: afternoon, 25 October.
Main article: Battle of El Agheila. Main article: Tunisian campaign. World War II portal. There were replacement tanks and over 1, tanks were in various stages of repair, overhaul or being modified at workshops.
There were approximately 77, Italians in North Africa who did not come under the Panzerarmee. There was a further serviceable German bombers in Italy and Greece.
There were German and Italian transport aircraft not included in the total. Five hundred of these were issued to Eighth Army.
The Bologna was returning on foot to the front line after the retreat order by Rommel had been cancelled. When the attack by 2nd New Zealand Division achieved a breakthrough in the sector defended by the Trento Division, armoured cars and tanks were sent forward in the open desert and caught the exhausted and disorganised soldiers of the Bologna Division off guard.
Mark 23 October Remembering Australian War Memorial, Canberra. Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 9 April Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 27 January Time Magazine 16 November Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 23 May Barr, Niall .
Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press. Bauer, Eddy . Young, Peter ed. London: Orbis. Bierman, John; Smith, Colin . New York: Penguin Books.
Buffetaut, Yves Paris: Histoire Et Collections. Churchill, W. The Hinge of Fate. The Second World War. Clifford, Alexander Three Against Rommel.
London: George G. Creveld, Martin van Supplying War; Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dear, I. Oxford University Press. Greene, Jack; Massignani, Alessandro Cambridge, MA: Da Capo. Hinsley, F. London: HMSO.
Jentz, Thomas L. Latimer, Jon London: John Murray. Latimer, Jon . Lucas-Phillips, C. London: Heinemann. Lucas, James Sydney New York: Beaufort Books.
Maurer, Maurer . Mead, Richard Stroud: Spellmount. Modelski, Tadeusz Montanari, Mario El Alamein. The Italian cemetery is a mausoleum containing 5, tombs.
There is also a Commonwealth war cemetery, built and maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission , with graves of soldiers from various countries who fought on the Allied side.
Buried here are 6, identified Commonwealth service personnel and unidentified ones, besides of other nationalities.
The cemetery entrance is through the Alamein Memorial and there is also a separate Alamein Cremation Memorial to Commonwealth service personnel who died in Egypt and Libya and were cremated in line with their religion.
The names of Canadian airmen appear on the Alamein Memorial in Egypt. The cemetery was designed by Sir J. Hubert Worthington. However, like the rest of the northern coast of Egypt , its climate is slightly less hot, compared to the rest of Egypt, because of the prevailing Mediterranean Sea winds.
Two important World War II battles were fought in the area:. Cross of Sacrifice , El Alamein Commonwealth cemetery. El Alamein Commonwealth cemetery plaque- — The land on which this cemetery stands is the gift of the Egyptian people for the perpetual resting place of the sailors, soldiers and airmen who are honoured here.
Media related to El Alamein at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the town. For other uses, see El Alamein disambiguation.
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